How does an aeroplane’s black box work?

28 May 2015 
After doing a little research, I can now tell you (basically) everything you ever wanted to know about black boxes...


In the average commercial aircraft, you’ll find the presence of multiple (usually four) microphones in the cockpit at any given time. They are located in the pilot and co-pilot’s headsets, as well as in the cockpit itself. Not only do these microphones record conversations between the pilots and cabin crew, they also record any ambient noise (such as switches being thrown or sounds generated by technical issues). The microphones all connect to the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), a master unit that stores the last 30 minutes of sound. The tape operates on a loop, essentially erasing itself every half hour.


This device is known colloquially, but a little misleadingly, as the black box (it is usually quite brightly coloured in order to make it easier to find in the unlikely event of an accident). Another device also referred to as a black box, is the flight data recorder (FDR), which automatically records data regarding the plane’s flight path, speed and movements in the air. Although the devices are distinct from one another, the information they record goes to the same place and is used for the same purpose, thus their shared name of black box.


In recent years, manufacturers have moved away from magnetic tape-based CVRs and FDRs and towards solid state technology boxes. These improved devices store the relevant data on memory boards, which can hold up to two hours of cockpit recording and 25 hours of flight data. The solid-state devices are also sturdier than their tape-based counterparts.


Crash survivable memory units (CMSUs), are large cylinders that back up all the relevant data and are designed to withstand extreme heat, pressure and violent impact. They are typically contained within the box itself. In the more severe accidents, the CMSU is all that survives of the black box.




The black box, then, simply records all the relevant data before an accident occurs. This serves to provide engineers with an explanation for a crash, as well as providing investigators and regulators with the same information.


So there you have it, of course, a lot of information is stored in an aircraft’s black box (much more than I’ve detailed here), but as a general example, that’s what it is and how it works. Hope that helps.

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Rediscovery of Knee Ligament Validates 19th Century Paper

28 May 2015 
Doctors have discovered that an important knee ligament, first described in an 1879 paper, before being subsequently ignored for well over a century, is actually a very real and important body part.


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common problem for many athletes. They are notoriously difficult to repair and the recovery is a tough and painful process that can take up to a year. Following treatment, however, many patients still complain of aches and pains and it is not at all uncommon for the joints to fail the necessary pivot-shift tests (performed so the doctors can check the success of their surgeries). Repeat injuries are also inexplicably common.


Last month, it was announced that a team of Flemish doctors appears to have finally solved this persistently vexing riddle and, in so doing, they validated a discovery made over a century ago.


Paul Segond, a 19th century French surgeon who is known for greatly aiding the development of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (as well as describing the Segond fracture), wrote of the ligament as a “pearly, fibrous band” in 1879. Segond posited that it was an additional ligament, but anatomists did not consider the initial discovery to be accurate.


After reading Segond’s paper and deciding that there may be something to it after all, the here and an anatomist began investigating the possibility that Segond’s mystery ligament was, in fact, a very real part of the Human body.


The team examined the knees of 41 cadavers, finding that 40 of them actually contained Segond’s ligament, just as he’d described it a hundred years earlier.


With this (re)discovery now published and proven, the ligament has been named as the anterolateral ligament (ALL).


The anterolateral ligament joins the other joint structures in the knee considered most important by doctors and anatomists, such as the lateral femoral epicondyle (LFE), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), Gerdy’s tubercle (GT), popliteus tendon (PT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and, of course, the aforementioned anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).


Surgeons are already considering ways in which to repair ALL tears and damage, with the hopes of improving the quality of life for anyone who suffers any ligament damage to the knees. This rediscovery is likely to become a very significant one in the field of sports and athletics, across both amateur and professional playing fields.


SOURCES


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Bluetooth As Opposed To Penalty Points

28 May 2015 



Mobile phones may be very useful to people but they are also much complained about. Although mobile phones are very common these days and might seem to have become a basic need, people different types of earpiece neglect how to use it properly especially when using Bluetooth headphones.


Factors you want to consider for selecting a communication equipment include the operation range, turn on time, battery life, sound quality, and comfort. If you are the type who likes to leave the cell phone on your desk and walk around your office, then make sure you get a device that has a decent range. For instance, the popular Jabra BT250v has a range of 30 feet.


This Nokia handset has 2Megapixel camera to click good quality pictures inside and outside. Most mobiles are great cameras also. These click photos at an instant and give good results. This classic handset clicks video also for its users. types of earpiece supports all important functions for the handset like handsfree talking, handsfree music listening, transfer of data through Bluetooth, etc.


When choosing a radio earpiece Bluetooth headset you want to make sure you choose something that is easy for you to use. This can increase the access and decrease the frustration. Here are a few things to consider when looking at the ease of use of the headset.


The labor progressed normally. In about four hours, Sara was pretty much ready to deliver. We called the team in and prepped for the birth. She was doing a natural childbirth, with the addition of an epidural for pain control.


It doesn't matter if your dad has a Razor phone, a Motorola phone, Samsung cell phone, iPhone or any other brand. Finding the perfect custom Father's day gift is as simple as going online. Online phone accessory shops can fit all kinds of phones. So don't let this Father's day pass by without getting your father the perfect gift that will last for years. Customizing your father's phone will show him you care. With a little thought, you can transform your father's cellphone into a unique and fun phone.
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28 May 2015 



The Ray android tablets Higdon MLM app was created for anyone in the home based business or network marketing space that enjoys training on how to build their business. Right now (this may change though) I have over 4 hours of training on there that I have NEVER released and you can download and listen to it right on your smart phone. I do plan on adding a lot of training to this app to serve the MLM community but this app will NOT always be free. Those that download now will be grandfathered in.


7"" google android tablet is as similar to a mini PC. It can perform all sorts of tasks that a computer can do. The best part of these mini computers is that you can carry these wherever you want to just inside your pocket. The 7"" google samsung tablet come with a huge display screen of 7 inches that has a very good picture resolution. You can watch high definition videos, movies, TV shows very clearly in the broad screen. In the 7"" google android tablet surfing and browsing can be done very efficiently. As the content can be viewed perfectly with clarity, internet browsing is very simple and easy in this smart 7"" google android tablet device.


If you are on a business trip in PoDung, USA, you will be aching to get back to your home town. The trip will not be over fast enough and your nights will consist of room service and the DVR. When you are in a lively, happening place, there is plenty to do after your meeting or class. Visit good restaurants, museums, the beach. Unwind and enjoy yourself! Mix business with pleasure.


Selecting the best time to leave can yield a big effect to how your trip starts out. By selecting a time to take a trip that will guarantee that the highways will be ordinarily clear of people one can stay away from traffic. This makes a huge difference specially when taking a road android tablet for restaurants trip over a long distance.


Additionally Barnes and Noble cut the prices of its restaurant first edition NOOK Wi-Fi and G Wi-Fi devices to and respectively. The price of the NOOK Color, a 7-inch, Wi-Fi-only Android tablet, will remain the same.
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What is Ham Radio & How Does it Work?

24 May 2015 
Ham radio (so called because its operators were originally derided as being ‘hammy’ in the 19th century, when the technology first emerged) is a term that applies to any form of amateur radio broadcasting.


There are designated radio frequency spectra available solely for public use. Uses range from recreation to communication and the non-commercial exchange of ideas. ‘Hams’ take advantage of these frequencies in order to transmit any number of things


Strictly speaking, there should not be any money involved in amateur radio (hence the term ‘amateur’). Although the majority of Ham radio practitioners are actually extremely knowledgeable about radio technology (don’t let the ‘ham’ part fool you), they are not considered professionals because they do not profit from their endeavours. Conversely, commercial broadcasting involves (a lot of) money: royalties are paid, producers and performers are paid and the whole thing is ultimately a commercial exercise.


Hams use a large amount of frequency bands from all across the radio spectrum, but the majority of frequencies are to be found just above the AM band.


A lot of hams, however, use VHF FM, operating hand-held transceivers that send on one frequency and receive on another. Local radio clubs set up FM Repeaters (which borrow space from other broadcast devices such as towers and, in doing so, amplify the radio signal’s strength hundreds of times over), so that hams can communicate with each other wirelessly over a distance of hundreds of miles.


As an example of what hams get up to, here’s an excerpt from Gary Brown, of How Stuff Works.com


“Although a ham radio does broadcast in all directions, hams generally do not use their radios in a broadcast kind of way as a disk jockey would at a radio station. In normal AM or FM radio, one disk jockey transmits and thousands of people listen. Hams, on the other hand, conduct two-way conversations, often with another ham or with a group of hams in an informal roundtable. The roundtable of hams may be in the same town, county, state, country or continent or may consist of a mix of countries, depending on the frequency and the time of the day. Hams also participate in networks, often called nets, at predetermined times and frequencies to exchange third-party messages. In the case of disasters, hams exchange health and welfare information with other hams”.


To become a ham, I recommend that you join a club. You’ll need an amateur radio license, of course, but this won’t break the bank, I’m sure.


I hope that helps, Melissa.
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